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AIOI: Double or twin stem. In the broadest sense, it means the proximity of 2 trunks or 2 trees, so it can be 1 or 2 trees (see also SOJU, SOKAN)

ARA-KAWACHO: Name for a tree with a rough, cracked bark

ARA-KI: Freshly dug tree (suitable for further design for bonsai)

ASHI: Feet of a bonsai pot

BANKAN: Bonsai with bent trunk

BONKEI: Natural landscape of plants, stones, figures (people and animals) and houses in a pot

BUNJIN: Literary form. Very playful. Large parts of the trunk mostly without branches

BUNJINGI: s. Bunjin

CHOKKAN: Strictly upright form. Typical is a straight single trunk with symmetrically balanced branches. Rectangular, round or oval pots are suitable for this style

CHUMONO: Description for bonsai with a size of 0.4 to 1.0 m

CHU-SHAKKAN: Bonsai style with clearly inclined trunk

DAI-KENGAI: Strong cascade with almost vertically downwards bent trunk

DAIKI: Name for mother plant or rhizome

DAI-SHAKKAN: Bonsai style with an extremely inclined trunk

EDA ZASHI: Branch cut

EDA-JIN: Branches that were artificially bleached

EDA-NUKI: Branch cut, better cutting off unnecessary branches

EDA-ZASHI: Branch cut

FUKINAGASHI: Bonsai designed in the style of the windswept form. Suitable pot shapes: rectangular or oval

FUTAMATA-EDA: Y-shaped branch. Mostly a mistake

FUTOKORO-EDA: Branch between 2 other branches. Mostly a design mistake

FUYODO: Upper layer of the forest floor with a large proportion of half-rotted leaves

GAITO-KENGAI: Arched cascade

GIKKURI-MAGARI: Zigzagged trunk. Does not look harmonious and is therefore to be regarded as a mistake

GOBO-NE: Name for a taproot

GO-KAN: Bonsai with a 5-fold trunk

GORO-TSUCHI: Coarse-grained soil

GYAKU BOSORI-EDA: Inverted branch, i. thin at the base, later thicker. Should be avoided

GYAKU-EDA: Branch bent back to stem. Mostly a design mistake

HA ZASHI: Technique of leaf cutting

HAGARI: Leaf cut or plucking the leaves

HAMIZU: Sprinkle leaves with water

HAN-EN-EDA: Arched branch. Mostly a mistake

HANKAN: Bonsai with strongly bent trunk

HAN-KENGAI: Semi Cascade shape. Mostly in round or square pots

HARIGANEKAKE: Wiring of a bonsai

HATOMUNE: Faulty trunk with bends in direction to the viewer

HA-ZASHI: Term for leaf incision

HIGE NE: Fine roots of a tree

HIJI TSUKI-EDA: Elbow-shaped branch. Not harmonious. Must usually be removed

HOKIDACHI: Bonsai in broom form

HOKI-ZUKURI: Broom form

HONBACHI: Bonsai pot

ICHI-NO-EDA: Lowest branch of a bonsai. Point to the right or left, never forward or backward


IKADABUKI: Raft form. Branches of a fallen tree develop into stems that are interconnected

ISHIT-SUKI: Rock Bonsai. Grows on or in a rock. The roots stick to the stone and reach to the ground

ITO-KENGAI: Thread-like downward sloping trunk and branches

IWAYAMA: Bonsai style ISHIT-SUKI (rock form). A tree growing over a stone

JIN: Dead trunk or branch. Jin is often artificially induced in bonsai by peeling the bark and then bleaching and emphasizing the age of bonsai

JU SEI: Growth of the tree

JU-SHIN: Crown or tip of a tree or bonsai

KABUDACHI: Bonsai with several stems that grow from a root (see also SOKAN, SANKAN, GOKAN). Usually a trunk dominates

KABUWAKE: Separating or dividing the root to propagate the plant

KAERUMATA-EDA: U-shaped branch. Mostly a design mistake

KANJU: Deciduous trees

KANNUKI-EDA: Branches with opposite arrangement. Doesn't normally look pretty

KANSUI: Watering

KANUMA TSUCHI: Bonsai substrate. Mixture of sand and clay

KARAMI-EDA: Twisted branch. Mostly a mistake

KARIKOMI: Pruning leaves and branches

KASANE-EDA: Parallel growing branches. Mostly a mistake

KASA-ZUKURI: Umbrella shape

KATADE-MOCHE: Bonsai with a size between 20 and 40 cm

KENGAI: Normal cascade form. Bonsai with bent trunk. Tip often clearly below the root. A high pot is recommended to give this form the necessary balance. Suitable pot shapes: round or square. KENGAI is also the generic term for other cascade forms (see HAN-KENGAI, DAI-KENGAI, GAITO-KENGAI, TAKI-KENGAI, ITO-KENGAI, TAKAN-KENGAI)

KESHI-TSUBU: Tiny bonsai significantly below 10 cm

KESHO TSUCHI: Substrate: Silvery-white soil (sand). Serves as jewelry


KO EDA: Fine branches

KOKEJUN: Trunk that tapers towards the top


KOMONO: Bonsai with a size between 12 and 20 cm

KOSA-EDA: Crossing branches. Design error - should be avoided

KUIKIRI: Conkav cutter

KUMADE: Claw-shaped scratching tool for removing the earth from a root ball. Often with a spatula on the other end

KURO-TSUCHI: Substrate: clay with black tint

KUROPOKA: Substrate: clay type

KURUMA-EDA: Branches are arranged in spoke forn. Design error

KUSURI-MONO: Glazed bonsai pot

MAME: Bonsai smaller than 10 cm

MEIBOKU: Bonsai of old age

METSUKI-EDA: Forward (towards the viewer) growing branch

ME-TSUMI: Pluck leaves

MIKI: Trunk

MIKI KIRI-EDA: Branch that crosses the trunk. Usually an error

MI-MONO: Fruit bearing bonsai

MISHO: Made from seeds

MISHO MOMO: Bonsai drawn from seeds

MIZO-GOKE: Water moss (Sphagnum)

MIZU-GIRE: Water shortage

MOYOGI: Free upright form with a slightly curved trunk. Probably the most common bonsai style. Suitable bonsai pots are rectangular, rectangular rounded or oval

NE ZASHI: Root pruning

NEGARI: Root stem or stilt root bonsai

NEBARI: Visible roots

NEJIKAN: Bonsai with twisted trunk

NETSURANARI: Bonsai form with several trees growing from a root that crawls across the ground

NI-NO-EDA: The 2nd branch of a bonsai. If possible pointing in the opposite direction from the 1st branch (see ICHI-NO-EDA)

NIWA-GI: Shaped tree in the earth (that is, without shell, mostly in gardens and parks). Not commonly referred to as bonsai

OKI-GOE: Fertilizer in ball or powder form

OMONO: Large bonsai to about 1.30 m without pot

ROBOKU: Old bonsai

ROSOKU-ZUKURI: Flame shape. Upright trunk with a crown similar to a candle flame

SABA-MIKI: Split trunk

SAGARI-EDA: Significantly down-growing branch. Mostly a mistake

SAIKEI: Rocky landscape with trees but without human or animal figures

SANKAN: 3-fold trunk from a root (father, mother, son)

SASHI-HO: Cuttings

SASHI-KI: Propagation by cuttings

SEISHI: Bonsai design, shaping

SENTEI: General term for pruning

SHAKAN: Bonsai with more or less inclined trunks (see also SHO-SHAKKAN, CHU-SHAKKAN, DAI-SHAKKAN). Oval or rectangular bowls are suitable

SHAKKAN-MOYOGI: Combination of the free upright shape and the inclined shape

SHARI-MIKI: Bonsai trunk with partially peeled bark (driftwood)

SHIN: Tree top

SHINKIRE-EDA: Maimed branch. Mostly a mistake

SHINME ZASHI: Cutting young shoots

SHINNASHI: Tree tip not available. Mostly a mistake

SHIZEN-ZUKURI: Bonsai form. Very natural look. Should not be designed too strict

SHOHAKU: Coniferous trees (Coniferous)

SHOHIN: Bonsai smaller than 15 cm

SHO-SHAKKAN: Bonsai style with slightly inclined trunk

SOJU: Double trunk, consisting of 2 plants

SOKAN: Double trunk from a root

SUIBAN: Flat pot without water hole

SUI-BAN: Flat pot without drainage hole. Will be used for the presentation of Suiseki

SUISEKI: Rock landscapes in a flat pot

TACHI AGARI: Basis of a trunk

TACHI-EDA: Vertical branch growing upwards. Not harmonious. Mostly a mistake

TACHI-GI: Upright bonsai forms. Generic term for e.g. MOYOGI, BUNJIN, CHOKKAN

TAKAN-KENGAI: 3-trunk or multi-stemmed cascade shape

TAKI-KENGAI: Waterfall cascade

TAMA-ZUKURI: Upright shape with ovale to round appearance

TANEGI: Starting plant, raw material for the bonsai design

TEKISHIN: Designation for the removal of shoots

TENJINGAWA SUNA: Substrate: Coarse sand

TEPPO MIKI: Rifle trunk. Design error

TOCHO SHI: Too long branch

TSUGI KI: Grafting


TSUGIKI-MONO: Bonsai obtained by grafting

TSURI-O-TORU: Attach the plant to the pot

YAMADORI: Bonsai taken from nature

YAMADORI-SHITATE: Bonsai made from a Yamadori

YOBI TSUGI: Grafting, refining

YOSE-UYE: Forest form. Group planting with several (odd number) trees. pots: Rectangular or oval

YUMI-KAN: Arched trunk. Design error

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